Background: Although the treatment of asthma has been addressed in several guidelines, the management of the first acute wheezing episode in infants has not often been evaluated. We surveyed practicing pediatricians in Spain about the treatment they would provide in a simulated case.
Results: A total of 2347 questionnaires were returned with useful data (78.2%). Most (90.4%) of the pediatricians would use a short-acting beta2 agonist (SABA) via a metered-dose inhaler with a spacer and a face mask or nebulizer. However, only 34.5% chose a SABA alone: 31.3% added an oral steroid and 27.6% added an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS). The factors associated with the use of ICS in the acute attack were: (1) lack of specific training in pediatrics (OR 1.45; 1.12-1.85) and (2) primary care health center setting (OR 1.31; 1.01-1.69) or rural setting (OR 1.28; 1.01-1.66). Forty-four percent did not recommend any follow-up treatment while 20.7% prescribed ICS as maintenance therapy. The factors related to this decision were the same as those described above.
Conclusions: The management of a first wheezing episode seems to meet published guidelines among Spanish pediatricians with formal training in pediatrics and in those who work in a hospital setting or in urban areas.
The series premiered in June to 2.17 million viewers and has been averaging 1.69 million in its Monday at 10/9c timeslot. Teen Wolf's renewal comes weeks after MTV's decision to cancel Skins, another one of its high-profile new dramas of 2011.
Preventing recurrence in bipolar disorder: The recommended starting dose is 10 mg/day. For patients who have been receiving olanzapine for treatment of manic episode, continue therapy for preventing recurrence at the same dose. If a new manic, mixed, or depressive episode occurs, olanzapine treatment should be continued (with dose optimisation as needed), with supplementary therapy to treat mood symptoms, as clinically indicated.
During treatment for schizophrenia, manic episode and recurrence prevention in bipolar disorder, daily dosage may subsequently be adjusted on the basis of individual clinical status within the range 5-20 mg/day. An increase to a dose greater than the recommended starting dose is advised only after appropriate clinical reassessment and should generally occur at intervals of not less than 24 hours. Olanzapine can be given without regards for meals as absorption is not affected by food. Gradual tapering of the dose should be considered when discontinuing olanzapine.
In patients with a manic or mixed episode of bipolar disorder, olanzapine demonstrated superior efficacy to placebo and valproate semisodium (divalproex) in reduction of manic symptoms over 3 weeks. Olanzapine also demonstrated comparable efficacy results to haloperidol in terms of the proportion of patients in symptomatic remission from mania and depression at 6 and 12 weeks. In a co-therapy study of patients treated with lithium or valproate for a minimum of 2 weeks, the addition of olanzapine 10 mg (co-therapy with lithium or valproate) resulted in a greater reduction in symptoms of mania than lithium or valproate monotherapy after 6 weeks.
In a 12-month recurrence prevention study in manic episode patients who achieved remission on olanzapine and were then randomised to olanzapine or placebo, olanzapine demonstrated statistically significant superiority over placebo on the primary endpoint of bipolar recurrence. Olanzapine also showed a statistically significant advantage over placebo in terms of preventing either recurrence into mania or recurrence into depression.
In a second 12-month recurrence prevention study in manic episode patients who achieved remission with a combination of olanzapine and lithium and were then randomised to olanzapine or lithium alone, olanzapine was statistically non-inferior to lithium on the primary endpoint of bipolar recurrence (olanzapine 30.0 %, lithium 38.3 %; p = 0.055).
In an 18-month co-therapy study in manic or mixed episode patients stabilised with olanzapine plus a mood stabiliser (lithium or valproate), long-term olanzapine co-therapy with lithium or valproate was not statistically significantly superior to lithium or valproate alone in delaying bipolar recurrence, defined according to syndromic (diagnostic) criteria.